What is IPO? How does it work?

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The first sale of the stock, by a private company or any government-owned company open to the general public, is the Initial Public Offering. A new company, a budding or an old company that decides to be enrolled in exchange, can be an IPO. The company is therefore publicly available.

In an IPO, a company can raise its equity capital without raising any new capital by issuing new shares to the public or its current shareholders.

Overall, a complex decision requiring careful consideration and planning is a public decision; although there remains always a threat to loss of confidentiality, flexibility and control, etc., of public companies, if the correct procedure is adopted, the IPO will have to be successful for the issuer company both short and long term.

An IPO company i.e. the “emitter” is not obligated to reimburse its investors for capital expenses. A subscriber or investor assists the issuer of the IPO.

The shares of the company are traded in an open market after IPO. These shares can also be sold to secondary market trading by investors.

How an IPO works?

The income from selling the shares/stocks of the IPO creates capital and fund growth for the issuing company. It involves an enormous amount of costs and time.

An underwriter supports the entire process of issuing the first capital to the public by asking potential investment companies to settle the price at which the inventory should be offered to investors. The first capital is issued to the public.

public finance
Free Stock photos by Vecteezy

After the IPO there is trade in shares between buyers and sellers in the open market, with no compensation for the underlying company.


It helps raise lots of cash and thus provides access to risk capital and financial avenues.

It increases examination, which in certain ways improves the company’s debt rates.

It helps the issuer to gain popularity and thus attracts the nation’s top talents.

Capital raised during an IPO can be used in financing R&D, financing capital expenses or in repaying current debt.

The creation at a fair price of a public market for the shares of the company helps to create liquidity.

It allows for the sharing of company controls, duties etc.

Therefore, for the first time, the public offering of the company’s stock is the conclusion of IPO, also called the “stock market launch.” The issuer company selling shares shall never reimburse public investors for the capital. IPOs are usually aimed at raising expansion capital, monetizing investments and becoming a publicly traded company.

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