The market for foreign exchange is where purchasers and sellers participate in the purchase and sale of foreign currencies. Just the market in which the different currencies are purchased and sold from different countries is referred to as the exchange market.
Forex, the worldwide network that allows exchanges around the world, is the commonly known foreign exchange market. The principal functions of the currency market which are the result of its operation are as follows:
Transfer Function: Departmental money is transferred from one country to another to settle payments as a basic feature and most visible function of the foreign exchange market. It mainly includes transferring the purchasing power from one country to another from one currency to the other.
For instance, the conversion of the rupee to the dollar will be facilitated by FOREX if the exporter of India imports goods from the United States and payments are made in dollars. The transfers are exercised by using credit instruments, such as bank draughts, currency bills and telecommunications transfers.
Credit Function: FOREX provides importers with short-term credit to help the smooth flow of goods and services across countries. An importing company can use loans to fund foreign purchases. Just as an Indian company wishes to buy machinery from the United States, it can pay for the purchase through an exchange bill, essentially with a maturity of three months on the devices market.
Hedging function: Devices have the third function of hedging currency hazards. The currency parties are often scared of exchange-rate fluctuations, i.e. the price of one currency as regards another.
Therefore, the FOREX offers in exchange for forwarding contracts the services to hedge the expected or actual claims/claims. A forward contract is usually a contract of three months for purchasing, selling, at a fixed price agreed today, a foreign exchange for an additional currency. So at the time of contract, no money is exchanged.
The foreign exchange markets have several dealers, the most important being banks. The banking companies have branches in various countries that facilitate the exchange, which is known as Exchange Banks.
Speculation of Foreign Exchange Market:
The Foreign Exchange “Speculation” is an act of purchasing, selling and gaining huge profits in the context of uncertainty.
Speculators often buy the currency, when they are weak, and when they are strong they sell it. Furthermore, if it is expected that the spot rate of the currency will rise in the future, then the speculator purchases the currency and sells it “on the spot.” On the other hand, if the speculator anticipates a drop in the exchange rate, the speculator then ‘sells’ at the present rate and buys the spot when the money is needed.
The speculative effect on the exchange rate is both stabilising and destabilising. For example, when the speculator purchases the currency at a low cost and sells it at a low price, the exchange rate is said to have a stabilising effect. However, the stabilisation and destabilisation of the exchange rate due to specimen transactions are controversial.